In ancient world we found khajuraho sculptures, statues, murals, votive, signs and symbols etc. In India it is cave paintings of Ajanta Elora, statues in different forms at various places like wall painting. Egypt has several symbols and statues, and several other examples are also available. Even every place or in every country we can find such examples of communication by ancient art. People were using different ways of communication time to time for example animals and birds were also used to send messages from one place to another, birds used to send information by letters, horses were also used by people to send messages to some other people at other places. These are a few examples however there are some other examples are also available.
If we talk about ancient mode of communication, we found that the basic methods were the same we have been using at present time, they were sign and symbols, visuals, cave paintings, motifs used on monuments, architectures, statues, and paintings and verbal mode. In this visual drawing I shown khajuraho architecture and statues symbol of sexuality, they were used to communicate about physical interaction and used to educate people about various forms of sexual intercourse and it is also called kama sutra. The several other forms were used in architecture to communicate accordingly. One more important element is music instruments which were used to attract people, while message had to deliver to mass. In the army they were also used musical instrument for communication however it is the same way we were using at past but only thing has changed that is platform and technology, earlier it has been using mechanically, now we take help of electronic media.
In the current scenario several model of communication have been developed by many philosophers like Aristotle, Berlo, Lasswell and many others. Their theories are based on Linear, Interactive and Transactional mode of communication.
There are three type of communication models are available which used in all kind of communications, these are linear, interactive and transactional.
Linear model of communication based on simple theory in which sender send the message and receiver receive it.
Interactive model add the feedback where sender send the message and receiver receive it, and receiver can also send the reply or feedback too sender. Here receiver can now become sender and sender become receiver.
Transactional model of communication is generally used in live debate or interviews, in which sender receive immediate reply or feedback.
Big question is why we communicate each other by using different methods of communication for different people, different regions, culture, language, age groups etc. And the answer is we communicate to educate people, to entertain and provide information to them.
Although the technology has been changed but still the principals and theories we are using are the same developed by some philosopher.
Aristotle’s model of communication
Aristotle developed a linear model of communication in which message sender send only and receiver only receive the message, this theory apply on the mass communication.
Speaker >> Speech >> audience >> effects
In which speaker is a sender, speech is a message, audience is receiver and after effects of message. It shows the effect of message on audience. Through this model we inform, entertain and educate people.
Berlo’s method of communication
Berlo’s invented SMRC methods of communication.
Source >> Message >> Channel >> Receiver
Source: It is required analysis on communication skills, attitude, knowledge, social system and culture, that’s mean sender of message should have the same communication skill as the people have, the pre study will guide to know about the communication skill of the people where the message has to be send. Attitude should be down to earth people should not think that you are not the part of them. Sender should have Knowledge of the subject which need to be send, and also should have knowledge of social system that how it works. Culture analysis helps us to know about their cultural practices like religions, language, regions etc. So message sender should have knowledge of all these issues. So that sender can send the message accordingly.
Message: Content analysis is required to make the message a successful event. Content should be clear and straight forward. Topics added to the message should be relevant to the people who are going to receive the message. Message structure should be clear.
Channel: Channel should be appropriate according to the message content and the receiver reach. Sender should keep in mind about the entire channel when preparing the message. If most of the people have radio so sender should prepare message for radio, but if most of the people read newspaper so it would be better to publish message into the newspaper instead of any other channel.
Receiver: Receiver analysis is very important; through this we can have an idea about the audience, about their communication skills, about their culture and regions etc.
Lasswell’s – theory of 5w’s
W W W W W
Who >> Says What >> in Which channel >> to Whom >> with What effects
Lasswell’s model of communication has 5w’s in which WHO is communicator and says WHAT is message, in WHICH channel is a medium, to WHOM is an audience or receiver and with WHAT effects. This we can understand through the given diagram.
So there are different messages for diverse people, various channel for different messages and audiences accordingly etc.